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Why do legislators invest scarce time and resources into forming and maintaining voluntary groups that provide few obvious benefits? Legislative member organizations (LMOs)—such as caucuses in the US Congress and intergroups in the European Parliament (EP)—exist in numerous law-making bodies around the world. Yet unlike parties and committees, LMOs play no obvious and pre-defined role in the legislative process. “Bridging the Information Gap” argues that LMOs provide legislators with opportunities to establish social relationships with colleagues with whom they share a common interest in an issue or theme. The social networks composed of these relationships, in turn, offer valuable opportunity structures for the efficient exchange of policy-relevant information between legislative offices.
Building on classic insights from the study of social networks, we demonstrate that LMO networks are composed of weak, bridging ties that cut across party and committee lines, thus providing lawmakers with access to otherwise unattainable information and making all members of the network better informed. Using a comparative approach, the book provides an overview of the existence of LMOs across advanced, liberal democracies and offers two nuanced case studies of LMOs in the European Parliament and the U.S. Congress.
For the book and for this database, we collected information on the existence of LMOs in a sample of advanced industrialized, liberal democracies. We included in our sample countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), the European Union (EU), or the Group of 20 (G-20) and that have “institutionalized democracy” scores of 8, 9, or 10 in the 2009 Polity IV Dataset (variable: DEMOC).
The following countries do not have LMOs in their national legislatures and are, therefore, not included in this database: Argentina, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey
Hover over a country to view database information or click to view country PDFs.